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Advancing Corrections is a peer-reviewed publication that provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for the dissemination of new research, policies and practices related to advancing professional corrections worldwide. The aim is to provide an opportunity for both researchers and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines (criminal justice, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, public health, and social work) to publish papers that examine issues from a variety of perspectives in a unique, interdisciplinary forum. Advancing Corrections is intended to fill the need for researchers to speak more clearly to practitioners and practitioners to speak in a more evidence informed way to their colleagues.
The full copy of the journal and the individual articles are available to ICPA Full, Professional and Staff Members.
|FOREWORD: ADVANCING CORRECTIONS: SHAPING PRACTICE THROUGH EVIDENCE
Frank J. Porporino Ph.D.
|As Editor of this first issue of Advancing Corrections, I want to take a few pages to outline the rationale for its inception. Corrections is both a noble and incredibly challenging vocation. For most corrections professionals, regardless of their rank or scope of responsibilities, there is rarely a dull issue to contend with or a dull moment to cope with. Looking back over more than 40 years, my own career feels more like a 100-yard dash than a lengthy marathon. Corrections has a way of getting into your lifeblood. It stretches and strains, engages and commits the efforts of hundreds of thousands of corrections professionals worldwide to find ways of delivering quality services in often very difficult circumstances. Quite persistently, corrections is also pushed and pulled in different directions, at different times, often for reasons that are more political or ideological than informed by evidence. Corrections professionals accept this. Over the last several decades, in many countries, they have grown accustomed to the pendulum swing towards greater conservatism, a hardening of public attitudes, less reliance on community options, growing rates of incarceration, longer sentences, and diminishing resources to manage the increasing numbers of mentally disordered, drug addicted, defiant, disturbed, and disadvantaged offenders […]||Download Article|
|FEATURED RESEARCH ARTICLES|
|THE RISK OF ‘A COLD CONSERVATISM’ IN CORRECTIONAL FACILITY DESIGN: THE CASE FOR DESIGN INNOVATION (33,404)
Rohan Lulham, Douglas Tomkin, Luke Grant & Yvonne Jewkes
|This paper examines the relationship between physical design and risk within modern correctional practice. It seeks to identify the potential risks and paradoxes of the current emphasis on considering correctional design primarily as a means of reducing security risks. We suggest that innovation in correctional design is required that embeds meanings that both support the goals of security risk management, but also the goals of reducing reoffending risk and promoting desistance. Drawing on a case study of the design and evaluation of a correctional education facility, we contend that innovative correctional design more broadly can be a stronger force for managing risk to promote desistance in corrections.||Download Article|
|DESIGNING CARCERAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR INDIGENOUS PRISONERS: A COMPARISON OF APPROACHES IN AUSTRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, THE US AND GREENLAND (48,449)
|The high incarceration rate of people from Indigenous cultures is a worldwide phenomenon. Disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous people are confined in prisons as a legacy of forced colonisation. There is a capacity for the design of prison facilities to have an impact on the prisoners’ experiences and outcomes. This paper will examine some trends and recent projects in the design of prison facilities for Indigenous prisoners in the US, Canada, Australia, Aotearoa New Zealand and Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat). It reflects on the important considerations and summarises eight key considerations for the design of carceral environments for Indigenous peoples.||Download Article|
|MANAGING RISK THROUGH RATIONAL PRETRIAL DETENTION PRACTICES (16,880)
|Prison systems face relatively high, often distinctive, risks and challenges in both confining and managing pretrial detainee populations. Large pretrial detainee populations undermine key objectives common to most correctional systems – incarcerating and rehabilitating convicted offenders, enhancing public security, and punishment. Pretrial detention contributes to prison overcrowding, has a criminogenic effect, and diverts scarce resources from other criminal justice priorities. A number of legal and policy interventions can reduce the arbitrary and excessive use of pretrial detention and the risks and burdens this entails for penal systems.||Download Article|
|PROMOTING CORRECTIONAL OFFICER WELLBEING: GUIDELINES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING PROGRAMS (26,558)
Justin S. Trounson & Jeffrey E. Pfeifer
|This paper explores the issue of staff wellbeing in a correctional context and discusses the need for the development of evidence-based and industry-responsive training for correctional officers to ameliorate the negative psychological effects of perceived workplace adversity. The paper provides a rationale for the development of training based on the existing literature and offers a set of overarching guidelines for consideration when developing programs aimed at positively impacting the wellbeing of correctional staff. Among other things, the enunciation of these gui delines is based on the contention that there is a need for training programs that acknowledge the unique challenges and environmental contexts faced by contemporary correctional officers. As such, it is argued that the planning, development and implementation of training programs need to be responsive to the diverse needs of staff and designed to be both relevant and palatable to correctional officers.||Download Article|
|ENGAGING PRISONERS IN EDUCATION: REDUCING RISK AND RECIDIVISM (20,761)
Helen Farley & Anne Pike
|Engaging prisoners in education is one of a range of measur es that could alleviate security risk in prisons. For prisoners, one of the main challenges with incarceration is monotony, often leading to frustration, raising the risk of injury for staff and other prisoners. This article suggests that prisone r engagement in education may help to alleviate security risk in prisons through relieving monotony and reducing re-offending by promoting critical thinking skills. It discusses some of the chal lenges to accessing higher levels of education in prisons and argues that if education was considered for its risk-reducing potential and measured accordingly, then some of those challenges could be reduced. It concludes with a discussion of projects undertaken in Australia and the UK that introduce digital technologies into prisons to allow greater access to the self-paced higher levels of education which could help realize the benefits of reduced risk and decreased recidivism rates.||Download Article|
|OPERATIONALIZING EVIDENCE-INFORMED PRINCIPLES IN REDUCING RECIDIVISM AMONGST HIGH-RISK OFFENDERS IN SINGAPORE (15,135)
Karam Singh & Salina Samion
|The use of empirical evidence in guiding correctional practice in the Singapore Prison Service began some 15 years ago when it first adopted the well-known Risks, Needs and R esponsivity (RNR) model. The RNR model has sound theoretical underpinnings that have been empirically validated (Andrews & Dowden, 2005). In Singapore, the growth in the use of evidence-informed correctional practices continued steadily through the years until, quite recently, when a particularly comprehensive application of empirical evidence served to integrate and elaborate a new approach. This paper discusses how empirical evidence guided the development and is now determining the delivery of correctional interventions, assessments, staffing and evaluation.||Download Article|
|THE ROLE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN OFFENDER SUPERVISION (16,766)
Yilma Woldgabreal & Andrew Day
|This paper reports the findings of an empirical study examining the relationship between offender supervision outcomes and the self-reported assessment of positive psychological states. Scores on a composite measure of positive psychological states were found to be inversely associated with supervision outcomes and mediated the relationship between risk-needs and technical violations, charges, reconvictions, and imprisonment. This suggests that interventions that promote states such as optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and psychological flexibility may have a key role to play in effective offender management.||Download Article|
|ISSUES IN CORRECTIONS: VIEWS AND COMMENTARIES|
|WIDENING THE SCOPE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF NORMALITY (13,123)
|On the 22nd of July 2011 a solo terrorist in Norway killed 77 people, mainly juveniles. After such a tragic terrorist attack – how is it possible to bring the community, victi ms and the offender back to normality? Victims have had their lives turned around. The core values of the society have been severely challenged, and the offender in question will have a long, maybe life-long sentence to serve. With the correctional normality concept as a starting point, this paper look s at three dimensions of the issue: Society, victim and offender. Furthermore, the paper reflects on what lessons Norwegian society has learned after the attack?||Download Article|
|IMPLEMENTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN PRISONS (16,665)
|The management of prisons includes protecting the human rights of prisoners. This article examines the practicalities of implementing human rights in prisons. Drawing on the author’s Australian and comparative research, the paper outlines relevant human rights principles, considers the capacity of prisons to incorporate human rights considerations into their routine management, and identifies the role of monitoring bodies in the proactive oversight of the prison environment||Download Article|
|INVESTIGATION INTO THE REHABILITATION AND REINTEGRATION OF PRISONERS IN VICTORIA (7,808)
|This paper presents some of the views of the Office of the Ombudsman in the State of Victoria in Australia, especially as they pertain to a recent investigation into the rehabilitation and reintegration of prisoners in Victoria.
The Victorian Ombudsman has responsibility for over 1000 government departments and bodies, yet one of those agencies stands head and shoulders above the others in the amount of time and attention it commands from the state’s independent adjudicator. That agency is Corrections Victoria, which manages the Victorian prison system. The Corrections, Justice and Regulation portfolio is the subject of more complaints than any other portfolio at the Ombudsman’s office. It was in this context that I launched, and in September 2015 tabled, my investigation into the rehabilitation and reintegration of prisoners in Victoria.
|RADICALIZATION: AN EXISTENTIAL THREAT (33,404)
|Radicalization means that an individual’s way of thinking is fundamentally altered. This change leads an individual to move further and further way from his/her mainstream way of thought. In this century of turmoil and widespread, even if limited warfare, radicalization towards violent and terrorist extremism is part of asymmetrical warfare. Groups are fervent in using asymmetrical means to meet their ends. If we take prisons as a dynamic society in its own right, where many individuals are “living” together, it is not difficult to imagine the intermingling of ideas, sharing of concepts, c onversion towards extremism and formation of new alliances. Radicalization is a thorough change; it engulfs the individual in discarding their mainstream outlook, moving instead towards extremist views, with push and pull factors creating an “us vs. them” mindset. In fact, in a prison environment any grievances, which an inmate comes with, can be easily exploited by terrorist recruiters and channeled into an extremist mindset. This paper tries to highlight the seriousness of the issue of radicalization facing societies, and focuses especially on explaining how extremist groups function and operate, both in the community at large and in prisons, in recruiting their members and giving them new purpose and meaning that can sustain their loyalty and fuel their commitment to violent action.||Download Article|
|JUST OPEN THE DOOR – SOLITARY CONFINEMENT REFORM IN COLORADO (8,034)
|In 2011, Tom Clements, who had thirty years’ experience with the State of Missouri Department of Corrections, was hired by Governor John Hickenlooper, the Governor of Colorado to lead the Colorado Department of Corrections. Executive Director Clements realized that the Department was overusing solitary confinement, where inmates were being confined in approximately 7 by 13 foot cells for 23 hours per day sometimes for years at a time. In fact, in 2011, 1500 inmates or almost 7% of the inmate population were being housed in solitary. Per capita this was one of the high est in the nation.
Executive Director Clements charged his staff with looking at each case individually to determine if those individuals needed to be in solitary. During these initi al reforms a terrible tragedy occurred. On the evening of March 19, 2013. Executive Director Clements was assassinated at his home by an individual who had been released into the community directly from solitary, where he had spent the last 7 years. This individual had absconded from parole and killed a person, who he had ordered a pizza from. Donning the delivery uniform he arrived at the Clements’ home and knocked on the door. Tom Clements was shot in the chest when he answered his front door.
|PRACTICE INNOVATION IN CORRECTIONS: THE HONG KONG DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES|
|MANAGING SPECIAL NEEDS OFFENDERS IN PRISONS AND THE COMMUNITY (15,998)
Michael Leung Chung-Chee
|It is important to recognise the differences between individuals and the value of embracing you other than me so as to allow each individual to be a part of a gr eater whole in society. In organizing services for persons in custody with special needs, the Correctional Services Department of Hong Kong adopts various strategies by utilising existing available recourses and programmes and optimising the support available from the community. The objective is to provide safer custody and better rehabilitation in the hopes of a greater whole – a more inclusive society.||Download Article|
|LEADING CHANGE IN CONTEMPORARY CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS – PRIORITISING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (16,190)
Virginia Leung Wai-Chong
|Contemporary correctional systems are facing numerous challenges ranging from traditional concerns such as prison security, to rising public expectations for the treatment of offenders. As a result, more comprehensive measures must be taken to overcome these obstacles. Being aware of the necessity to manage attendant risks, the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department identifies and targets efficient human resource management as one of the most important factors for a successful correctional system. This includes but is not limited to r einforcing a strong sense of belonging and self-motivation of staff, building up professional knowledge and strategic training plans, offering psychological support to staff members, and most importantly, the implementation of “Vision, Mission and Values” of the Department in everyday operations. These measures have produced positive results; increased efficiency and as a result improved bonding between staff members, and improved professional relationships between staff and offenders, has been observed. The Hong Kong Correctional Services Department will continue to lead its staff mem bers to commit to the Department’s VMV to strive for excellence and take pride as correctional officers to face the challenges ahead. This paper attempts to summarize our approach in this arena of correctional challenges.||Download Article|