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This issue includes 15 original papers with authors from Canada, America, the UK, the Netherlands, Australia and Africa. The response to the last Call for Papers was overwhelming and with the support of our international Editorial Board, we could choose ‘la crème de la crème’ for our readers. The mix of authors we have been able to attract is also encouragingly representative of the community of corrections professionals we want to engage – academics and/or researchers, consultants, senior corrections officials, including a few heads of service, front-line practitioners, public and private sector – all with something interesting to say, perhaps said a bit differently in each case, but said with honesty, thoughtfulness and some scholarly substance. We hope you enjoy this second issue of Advancing Corrections and we welcome your feedback.
|FEATURED RESEARCH ARTICLES|
|MASS INCARCERATION IN AMERICA: CAN IT BE REVERSED?
|In 2012, the National Research Council of the National Academies (NAS) convened an interdisciplinary group of scholars and experts to explore the causes and consequences of America’s high rates of incarceration. The committee explored issues in depth over a period of 18 months, culminating in the release of a landmark report in April, 2014. In the first half of this paper, I will present the major findings of this report, including the committee’s conclusions and recommendations. I will then proceed to explore the implications of those findings and present my own thoughts outlining reform strategies that hold the promise of reducing our unprecedented high rates of incarceration.||Download Article|
|DESIGNING PUNISHMENT IN ENGLAND AND WALES: WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM OTHER COUNTRIES ABOUT BALANCING SECURITY, CREATIVITY AND HUMANITY IN CONTEMPORARY CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS?
|This article is based on a plenary presentation given at ICPA’s annual conference in Melbourne, Australia, in October 2015. It draws on my observations of twelve brand new or very recently built prisons in various countries that I have visited in the course of my current research project (and the drawings and plans for around a dozen more). The article discusses some of the most interesting and progressive recent prison designs and the extent to which the new political actors charged with driving forward a prison modernization programme in the UK can learn from the more enlightened attitudes displayed by their counterparts elsewhere. The article also briefly considers parallels between design innovation in the sphere of healthcare and that underpinning the most humane and imaginative prisons in parts of central and northern Europe. It concludes that architecture and design can play a significant role in prison reform, lowering recidivism and ultimately reducing the prison population.||Download Article|
|LEADERSHIP IN THE DESIGN OF WOMEN’S PRISONS: A CASE STUDY
Stephen A. Carter
|So many examples exist of women’s jails and prisons being constructed using plans from male institutions and simply using “feminine” colors and omitting the urinals. With a population coh ort that is on the rise in many parts of the world, the need for gender-specific correctional facilities will continue to increase. This paper describes a case study which illustrates how effectively informed leadership can influence design decisions in a participatory approach. The author served as a representative of the owner (San Diego County Sheriff’s Office) for more than 10 years and participated in an informative process of managing change in opinions and attitudes of decision-makers, from line staff to community activists. The theme for operations and design throughout the early planning to the selection of landscape materials for the campus was one of “a new normal” for incarcerated women. The first, and ultimately most challenging, aspect was defining normal in a multi-ethnic community of more than two million residents. Much like “good art”, an attitude prevailed that “I’ll know it when I see it”. Visioning workshops, tours, photographs from educational, healthcare, residential, and penal examples were used to initially curb a concern that what was being proposed was not “marketable” to decision-makers and line staff. By using parallel activities of changing attitudes through leadership training and the production of design documents involving a broad participation of stakeholders, an award-winning facility emerged. While the Las Colinas Detention and Reentry Facility has received numerous design awards since opening in late 2014, perhaps the most valuable endorsement has come from the line staff documented in their Post Occupancy Evaluation comments. Consistently, staff who work 12 hour shifts commented that the working environment supported and extended the feeling that their work was valued. Achieving this was a unique combination of inspired leadership and imaginative design.||Download Article|
|USING IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE TO TURN “RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE”: LESSONS LEARNED FROM INTEGRATING MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
Michael D. Clark
|The focus of this article is to examine implementation science as applied to correctional practices. Implementation science, as posited by Fixsen (2005) and the National Implementation Research Network (NIRM), will be reviewed, with attention paid to competency drivers, as well as the degrees and stages of implementation. The purpose of this article is to convey that implementation efforts can vary in developing needed capabilities to ensure proper scale and fidelity are achieved for effective practice of a correctional approach. The adoption of Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2013), an emerging correctional practice, is used to describe “lessons learned” regarding several important implementation issues. This article offers six suggestions for correctional groups to improve their implementation outcomes. These suggestions are based on actual field experience and case studies of multiple implementation initiatives of Motivational Interviewing across the USA.
Keywords: implementation science, motivational interviewing, organizational readiness, practice drift, coaching and feedback, communities of practice, blended learning
|PERCEIVED REINTEGRATION OPTIONS DURING IMPRISONMENT
Toon Molleman & Karin Lasthuizen
|This article examines the factors that might underpin the options experienced by prisoners, and the degree of interest they may demonstrate, for working on their reintegration to society. The factors and explanations offered by a number of theoretical models are tested against the Dutch prisoner survey 2014 (n=2120) and the findings from statistical analyses are generally supportive of some key influences: Prisoners are more positive about their reintegration options if they take a more favorable view about how they are treated in prison, if they have made active use of their Detention and Reintegration Plan, and if they see value in their daily program and experience some level of autonomy. These findings have some important implications for how the prison system can work more effectively towards the successful return of prisoners to society.||Download Article|
|EXAMINING THE ROLE OF CONNECTION TO CULTURE AND COMMUNITY IN PROMOTING INDIGENOUS INMATE ENGAGEMENT WITH EDUCATION IN PRISON
Charlotte A. Boyce, Justin S. Trounson, & Jeffrey E. Pfeifer
|Research indicates that Indigenous groups are overrepresented within prison populations, representing a significant challenge for corrections agencies in a number of countries. Among other things, it is clear that the overrepresentation of Indigenous people across the justice system is a complex, multidimensional issue requiring a significant amount of insight and empirical examination in order to identify and address the range of contributing factors. Although there are likely to be a variety of historical, social and cultural factors that contribute to the high rates of incarceration and recidivism in these groups, one area which has recently been identified as worthy of further investigation is that of educational attainment. Although the link between education and recidivism has long been acknowledged in corrections policies that promote education for inmates, there remain difficulties in encouraging Indigenous inmates to engage in educational opportunities. This paper explores the importance of connection to culture and community in promoting Indigenous engagement in educational pursuits while incarcerated. Furthermore, it does so through an Australian perspective, discussing the benefits and implementation of culture-informed, education-focused programs designed to assist Indigenous individuals to maintain engagement in educational pursuits while incarcerated.||Download Article|
|THE CORRECTIONS DATA DOCTRINE
Alphonzo A. Albright
|This essay highlights the importance of creating an all-encompassing data-sharing capability with a bottom-up approach starting at correctional facilities up to counter-terrorism government agencies. Increased information sharing about gang or terrorist affiliations in the prison system will empower counter-terrorism authorities by giving them predictive and educated analysis of potentially radicalized individuals. This paper proposes that intelligence offered from a corrections data doctrine will help curb the amount of attacks occurring all over the world. Capturing data surrounding potential radicalization can be accomplished through a combination of offender management systems and subsequent business intelligence analysis tools. Improved inter-governmental data sharing will thereby increase the security and safety of countries and people around the world.||Download Article|
|ISSUES IN CORRECTIONS: VIEWS AND COMMENTARIES|
|TWO PERSPECTIVES FROM NORTH AMERICA ON PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP IN CORRECTIONS
Paul Gendreau & Mario A. Paparozzi
|The qualities needed for effective leadership in corrections are discussed from two vantage points. The commentators, while both academic/consultants at the present time, each has had extensive and different experiences in the field (i.e., prisons and community corrections). The first commentator takes a micro look at the functioning of correctional administrative leaders from Canadian jurisdictions while the second provides more of a gestalt viewpoint on the qualities of leadership desired in the United States. While both phrase their critiques from different angles, there is a broad consensus on the skills, values and function of leaders and the intellectual self-defense needed to combat the powerful adverse effects of the politics of the field.||Download Article|
|SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIP IN CORRECTIONS: THE CHALLENGE OF MAKING POLITICS AND CRIMINOLOGY COMPATIBLE
|This paper explores the complexity of being a successful leader in corrections, examines the components of successful leadership in such a challenging environment and identifies the practical management and leadership skills that generate success.||Download Article|
|CORRECTIONAL LEADERSHIP FOR THE FUTURE: INSPIRING, INNOVATING
|For over 38 years I have seen the evolution and transformation of correctional services within Canada at the federal, provincial and territorial level, and in jurisdictions around the world. While there have been many changes in terms of the practices, procedures and policies that have been implemented to ensure that a jurisdiction delivers modern and effective correctional services, the most significant changes have been around the type of leadership needed to affect transformation and to ensure that it “sticks” going forward.||Download Article|
|KEEPING STAFF MOTIVATED DURING AGENCY DIRE STRAITS: A LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE
|Change is always upon us – driven by multiple factors from multiple sources. Prisoners and staff are affected and change must be managed if good governance is to be achieved. The Netherlands is a good ongoing example of this.
I believe that there is a continuous pressure for change within correctional systems in every country. On the one hand, some change is initiated by corrections professionals, but more often, it is driven by budget cuts, overcrowding or a combination of both.
Prison organisations don’t differ from ‘regular’ organisations in society when it comes to ‘a constant need for change’. What makes them unique, however, is that society’s notion of what happens behind those high walls is (inevitably) limited. And the radical organisational changes we might have to consider can never result in a weakening of security, given the significant social implications of, for example, escapes and riots.
The management of the prison administration has a key role in this. How do you ensure that society, decision-makers in particular, have a correct understanding of the meaning of a ‘sound prison administration’? How do you ensure that the (political) decision-makers base their decision making on that understanding? How do you ensure that the personnel of the prison administration are motivated to (continue to) carry out their important work with passion?
In this article I want to address these questions based on my practical experiences in the Netherlands. First, I will give a brief outline of the reform process, which we have engaged with in the Netherlands since 2013. After this, I will focus on the way in which we managed this process. Finally, I will highlight the role of the managers in the process and the meaning of leadership.
|THE IMPACT OF INMATE EDUCATION AND LEADERSHIP TO THE MANAGEMENT OF CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES: LESSONS FROM UGANDA AND KENYA
Jackline Mwende & Rabia Pasha
|Focusing on Uganda and Kenya, this paper will discuss the impact of supporting leadership via education and mentorship of inmates. It will discuss tried strategies that have seen inmates’ leadership and academic excellence change prison programming in both countries. The discussion will look at the traditional closed circuited nature of prisons before iconic advances in formal education and case law originating from efforts of incarcerated individuals in both countries. Case studies from these countries will show how prisons can be changed via indirect and non-confrontational strategies that target building role models that have influence beyond the prison. Further, it will reveal the discovery by the African Prisons Project that inmates supported and profiled as agents of change, leaders and role models, can impact on the overall management and programming of prisons. This changes the negative perception of prisons and serves to attract external partnerships that greatly enhance the quality and innovativeness of prison rehabilitation models.
Key words: Incarcerated, Leadership, Inmate, Prisons, Mentorship, Education, Role models, Correctional Facilities, Management, Kenya, Uganda.
|PRACTICE INNOVATION IN CORRECTIONS: THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA|
|BUILDING AND SUSTAINING AN ANALYTICAL CULTURE IN CORRECTIONS
Larry L. Motiuk
|Correctional organizations with an analytical culture have a keen interest in the strategic use of data for business planning and decision making. Correctional Service of Canada’s own analytic journey began with moving from a position of reacting to one problem at a time to a more strategic organization equipped with the analytic capacity to find solutions proactively. The first section of this paper highlights the key elements required for building an analytical culture in corrections. The second section focuses on sustaining this analytical culture through applied practice. More specifically, by showing how data analytics respond to six important and related questions: How many will there be? (Size); Who will they be? (Composition); How many re-offend? (Performance); Who will they be? (Prediction); If who re-offends is known, then what? (Intervention); If intervened with, then what? (Impact). A data informed approach to corrections can help to deliver positive performance results.||Download Article|
|TRANSFORMING THE CORRECTIONAL OFFICER TRAINING CONTINUUM OF THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
|This paper provides an overview of the approach that was taken by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) to transform the Correctional Officers training program. It will describe the changes in the training continuum and the main collaborative activities that have made the transformation both possible and successful.||Download Article|
|A NEW ‘IT’ BUSINESS CAPABILITY MODEL WITHIN THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Simon Bonk & Ted Reinhardt
|In the 21st century, with Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) playing a strategic enabling role in leading organizations, there is an opportunity to shift the conversation concerning ICT and assess its value for and contribution to Correctional Services1. With the mandate of assisting the rehabilitation of offenders and their safe reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens, the conversation should become more about the ability of ICT to help achieve this mandate throughout the correctional process, from beginning to end of incarceration and then eventually with a focus on reintegration back into the community. The conversation should be about improving the functioning of this process and less about IT service calls met, or IT infrastructure purchased. It is time for organizations delivering ICT to showcase how it can build capabilities that enable its stakeholders and partners within the correctional services to effectively leverage technology to modernize service and the business capabilities required to deliver this.||Download Article|