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This Edition focuses on the theme of ‘innovative approaches for service-delivery to offenders’. In a recent Strategic Planning session, the ICPA Board endorsed the promotion of evidence-informed practices as one of ICPA’s top three priorities, and so the theme is timely. Modern correctional agencies need to assess the merits of an increasing number of potential innovations (e.g., adopting new technology for services delivery to offenders), or changes in existing practice (e.g., assessment,case management, intervention, or other service-delivery frameworks). What will most likely improve performance is not always clear — is there strong enough evidence to support the change in the context of other agency circumstances, would the new approach be feasible to implement, how much can it be expected to enhance performance, are there alternatives or options … etc.? There is an abundant and ever-growing amount of research evidence to support change in practice in corrections. Unfortunately, many attempts at change can end up as being true ‘on paper’ but no t on the ground (e.g., outlined only in policy), or even more often, fragmented or superficial without much meaningful impact. The papers in this Edition give a different perspective – the possibility of thoughtful, planned, integrated and meaningful change.
|FEATURED RESEARCH ARTICLES|
|GETTING MENTALLY ILL OFFENDERS OUT OF PRISON IN BELGIUM: INNOVATIVE AND PATIENT-ORIENTED TREATMENT IN A SPECIALIZED ENVIRONMENT
Katelijne Seynnaeve, Hanne Beeuwsaert
|Several studies show that in Europe psychiatric problems are far more prevalent in prison than in free society. They are especially common amongst those offenders who have been found by a court of law to be of unfit/unsound mind. It is this specific group of the prison population that this article will focus on and who will be referred to as mentally ill offenders from now on. It is clear that in Belgium, the number of mentally ill offenders accommodated in prison has risen progressively. However, recently a decrease in those numbers is noticeable. This drop can be attributed to a new structural approach developed by the Belgian government. The topic of internment has been placed more prominently on the policy agenda and the government committed to a drastic limitation in the time which mentally ill offenders would spend in detention and to the creation of a broader and more differentiated range of care outside the prison walls. The ultimate goal is to take care of mentally ill offenders as much as possible outside prison, offering them the necessary care and achieving a smooth progression within the care circuit (network of different care options) even in crisis or problematic situations. In order to achieve that goal, a total package is currently being worked out that focuses on necessary and suitable care capacity and a clear legislative framework. A critical factor in this new direction is a partnership which is diverse and goes beyond the scope of a network both at the policy level and on the work floor, depending on the care trajectories to be developed for mentally ill offenders. This article will give a detailed overview of the change in Belgian policy and will, as a case study, address the choices of the Belgian government that have contributed to a decrease in the number of mentally ill offenders in prison.||Download Article|
|NEW DIRECTIONS: INTEGRATING A BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH IN THE DESIGN AND DELIVERY OF PROGAMS FOR HIGH RISK SERVICE USERS IN HER MAJESTY’S PRISON AND PROBATION SERVICE
Dr. Jamie S. Walton, Laura Ramsay, Cara Cunningham, Sarah Henfrey
|Recently, Mann and Carter (2012) have proposed a biopsychosocial model of change building on the Good Lives Model and principles of Risk-Need-Responsivity. The first stage of the model provides a biopsychosocial explanation of dynamic risk factors predictive of sexual recidivism. The second stage articulates a set of compatible organizing principles for program design. In this article we expand the model by providing a preliminary account of the biological, psychological and social basis of dynamic risk factors associated with different offence typologies. Subsequently, details are provided of two widely accessible high intensity programs which implement the organizing principles of the model.||Download Article|
|CORRECTIONAL SERVICE CANADA’S INTEGRATED CORRECTIONAL PROGRAM MODEL (ICPM)
Nancy Poirier, BSc., Kelly Taylor, Ph.D.
|Despite the success of Correctional Service Canada’s (CSC) traditional suite of correction programs in reducing recidivism among all types of offenders, CSC has experienced a number of challenges in the delivery and management of programs, particularly with men offenders. Combining the strongest elements of our previous generation of programs with more recent innovations in offender rehabilitation research, the Integrated Correctional Program Model (ICPM) was designed to enhance public safety by providing a continuum of intervention and allowing greater capacity for offenders to access and complete correctional programs earlier in their sentences while being at least equally effective as CSC’s traditional cadre of correctional programs.||Download Article|
|OUTCOMES OF WOMEN OFFENDER CORRECTIONAL PROGRAMS
Dena Derkzen, Ph.D., Aileen Harris, M.A., Kaitlyn Wardrop, M.A., Jennie Thompson, Ph.D.
|In 2010, the Correctional Service Canada (CSC) implemented the Women Offender Correctional Program (WOCP) and the Aboriginal Women Offender Correctional Program (AWOCP), both rooted in gender-responsive approaches. The extent to which the objectives of AWOCP and WOCP were met was examined, focussing on program participation and attrition rates, participant treatment gains, and release outcomes. Overall, results demonstrated that participants in AWOCP and WOCP have benefitted from involvement in these correctional programs, providing evidence supporting correctional programs that are responsive to both culture and gender. Limitations and future directions are discussed.||Download Article|
|OFFENDERS WORK 2 GIVE BACK TO INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES: A PRISON AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP PROJECT
Helen Brown, Colleen Varcoe, Melissa Taylor, Kelsey Timler, Sarah Jackman
|In 2012, the Work 2 Give (W2G) initiative was developed as an innovative approach to offender rehabilitation and the provision of basic items to economically impoverished First Nations communities in British Columbia. In W2G, incarcerated men6 make and donate items to Indigenous communities. In this paper, we describe implementation of this prison-community partnership and findings from a study7 of the impacts on the participating offenders and communities. These findings can contribute to evidence-based correctional programming that addresses reintegration of offenders to communities. The findings are relevant to developing sustainable prison-community partnerships and meaningful work programming within correctional institutions.||Download Article|
|IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE BREAKING FREE ONLINE AND PILLARS OF RECOVERY TREATMENT PROGRAMS FOR SUBSTANCE-INVOLVED OFFENDERS
Glyn Davies, Dr. Jonathan Ward, Dr. Sarah Elison, Dr. Samantha Weston, Stephanie Dugdale, Dr. John Weekes
|This paper reports on implementation of two treatment programs for substance-involved offenders, computer-assisted therapy program Breaking Free Online (BFO) and the Pillars of Recovery (PoR) group-work program. These programs were made available in the UK ‘Gateways’ pathfinder to support offenders to transition back to the community. BFO has also become the first accredited healthcare and offending program to be delivered to prisoners via Virtual Campus (VC), a web-based learning environment available across all English and Welsh prisons. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation has revealed barriers and facilitators of implementation of BFO and PoR, and demonstrated initial clinical outcomes to be promising.||Download Article|
|VIEWS AND REVIEWS / ANÁLISIS Y OPINIONES|
|THE USE OF SEGREGATION FOR CHILDREN IN AUSTRALIAN YOUTH DETENTION SYSTEMS: AN ARGUMENT FOR PROHIBITION
Dr. Elizabeth Grant, Dr. Rohan Lulham Professor Bronwyn Naylor
|In 2016, the Australia Federal Government called a formal public inquiry under the arrangement of a Royal Commission to investigate the care and custody arrangements of children under detention orders in the Northern Territory. The NT youth detention system has been shown to be over-reliant on segregation as a behavior management tool which has likely resulted in the abuse of children in their care. This paper examines literature on the use of segregation to explain the progressively degenerating behavior of the children in custody and the likely negative physical and psychological impacts to the children involved. The paper calls for the prohibition of segregation of children arguing that a paradigm shift in the youth detention system to a model employing non-institutional care with trauma informed practice needs to be made.||Download Article|
|VIEWS AND REVIEWS|
|HUMAN RIGHTS ARE GOOD CORRECTIONS: A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE KENYA PRISONS SERVICE AND THE RAOUL WALLENBERG INSTITUTE
Terry Hackett, Benjamin Njoga, Josh Ounsted
|Focused on approaching human rights through a correctional lens, as well as investing in people rather than infrastructure, the Raoul Wallenberg Institute for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (RWI) established a mutually beneficial and sustainable relationship with the Kenya Prison Service (KPS). This article will highlight this unique initiative and the progress that has been made over the last five years in embedding the Mandela Rules and Human Rights into daily correctional practice of the KPS. Through this integrated and action orientated partnership, the professional training and deployment of front line Human Rights Officers was paired with training of KPS leadership in both the principles and practical implementation strategies of the Mandela Rules. Targeted initiatives such as amending legislation and departmental policy as well as a focus on evidence based approach to correctional practice has provided support to this approach. Progress is measured through comprehensive audits against the Mandela Rules and other Human Rights Instruments conducted jointly by RWI and trained KPS Human Rights Officers. Results to date are promising and the partnership was recently recognized by the International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA) with the 2016 Correctional Excellence Award for Management and Staff Training.||Download Article|
|PILOTING THE WOMEN’S RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC: HOW ICPA FACILITATES INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH COLLABORATIONS
Tereza Trejbalová, M.A., Emily J. Salisbury, Ph.D.
|This paper describes a pilot of the Women’s Risk Needs Assessment (WRNA) in a Czech correctional facility that could potentially lead to a state-level implementation of this gender-responsive instrument. The preliminary results suggest that several dynamic factors were determined to be prevalent needs among the particular population; however, the majority of Czech incarcerated females also reported strengths in different areas of their lives. The misconduct data of the interviewed women will be collected after 6- and 12-months from the date of the interview in order to establish the validity of the instrument in the Czech Republic.
Keywords: women offenders, risk assessment, trauma
|EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF INMATES WITH BORDERLINE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN PRISON
Dr. Nixon, M. & Dr. Trounson, J. S.
|Effectively managing and supporting individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a difficult task for correctional organizations. Rates of ID in prisons are substantially higher than in the general community, yet there is evidence that rates of Borderline intellectual disability (BID) in prison are even greater. We argue that high rates of BID in prison populations is of concern. This group shares many of the challenges facing people with ID yet they may be harder to identify, and/or are ineligible for support services. Furthermore, high rates of BOD among prisoners means there is a need to ensure programs and interventions are targeted to these recipients, to ensure the efficient direction of resources. Prison officers also need support and training to adequately supervise and care for this group. To properly resource correctional services to manage people with BID, we need accurate estimates of prevalence. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of BID in correctional settings will enable the resourcing, design and delivery of effective programs tailored to the needs of offenders with BID.||Download Article|
|PRACTICE INNOVATION IN CORRECTIONS: CORRECTIVE SERVICES NEW SOUTH WALES|
|ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF PROGRAMS AND SUPERVISION TO REDUCE REOFFENDING IN NEW SOUTH WALES
Luke Grant, Anne-Marie Martin, Rosemary Caruana, Jayson Ware and Jason Hainsworth
|In line with the State Government priority to reduce re-offending by 5 percentage points by 2019, Corrective Services New South Wales has adopted an evidence-based model in the delivery of community supervision and offender programs. The model addresses gaps and is in line with evidence around what works in reducing reoffending. Particular attention is given to the responsivity principle, designed to assist offenders in understanding the factors linked to their offending, and acquire the skills to independently manage their risk of reoffending.||Download Article|
|MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE WITH MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NEW SOUTH WALES
Dr. Phillip Snoyman, Berindah Aicken, Chris Blatch, Anjah Govender
|There are a higher proportion of people with mental health disorders (MHD) in prison compared with the general population. The main purpose of prison is not to treat people with MHD but their presence requires they are safely and humanely managed. People with mental health disorders need to both receive treatment as well as address their offending behavior. Corrective Services New South Wales has developed a sequenced, person-centered approach requiring multi-disciplinary staff working within a range of facilities to identify, triage and manage people with MDH in order to minimise their risk, and prepare them for successful release and reintegration||Download Article|