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Advancing Corrections Journal – Edition 7

This Edition of Advancing Corrections is giving focus to ‘Community Corrections’. Community Corrections is an umbrella term we use to describe all of the things we do in the community to assist justice involved individuals in their reintegration journeys. There are papers in this Edition that that challenge us in going further in how we engage and collaborate with our communities (as they do, for example, in Japan and in Singapore). From a North American perspective, maybe one of the things we should accept is that rather than just doing things as usual, with some adjustment at the edges, we can learn from international practice that has truly pushed the boundaries of community engagement. One of the strengths of our Journal is that we continue to attract submissions from around the world – for this Edition, from the US, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Singapore and Canada.

 

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FEATURED ARTICLES
ARTICLE 1 – TOWARDS ‘A LIFE MORE ORDINARY’: THE POSSIBILITIES OF DESISTANCE-ORIENTATED PROBATION

Bronwyn Morrison & Jill Bowman

This article critically reflects on the role that probation supervision plays in desistance. Utilising evidence from a New Zealand longitudinal post-release study, it finds that while most participants had a good relationship with their probation officer, few credited their probation officer with having a substantive part to play in their desistance. Reflecting on a case study in which super vision did catalyse desistance, it concludes that supervision can have an impact, but questions to what degree desistance-orientated practice departs from more traditional probation models. It recommends that more could be done to delineate and empirically assess whether desistance-orientated practice results in better long-term outcomes for those under supervision.
ARTICLE 2 – INTEGRATION OF THE RISK NEED, RESPONSIVITY (RNR) MODEL AND CRIME DESISTANCE PERSPECTIVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMUNITY CORRECTIONAL PRACTICE

Ralph C. Serin & Caleb D. Lloyd

This article critiques the relative contributions of RNR and desistance literature to understanding client change and improving client outcomes. The general premise is that both client change and outcome can be best understood by an integration of these key contributions. Specific suggestions regarding community supervision are presented
ARTICLE 3 – PROBATION AND VOLUNTEERS IN JAPAN

Andrew Watson

Origins of the probation service, its administrative structure, the respective roles of Professional Probation Officers (“PPOs”), hogo kansatsu kan, and the nearly 50 times more numerous Volunteer Probation Officers (“VPOs”), hogo-shi, are described. Recruitment of VPOs, their backgrounds, increasing age, methods of work and training is outlined, followed by activities of local VPO Associations, Offender Rehabilitation Support Centres and other voluntary organisations with whom they work. Strengths of the distinctive Japanese VPO system are analysed, followed by a discussion of challenges it faces.

Keywords: Probation, Japan, Volunteers, Strengths, Challenges.

ARTICLE 4 – SINGAPORE’S YELLOW RIBBON PROJECT: UNLOCKING THE SECOND PRISON

Shanthi Pandian, Ruth Pauline Chin, Sandra Chua & Cheng Xiang Long

Launched in 2004, the Yellow Ribbon Project (YRP) is a national campaign across Singapore aimed at generating awareness, promoting acceptance and engendering community action to support ex-prisoners’ reintegration into mainstream society. Over the past fifteen years, the Yellow Ribbon Project and other criminal justice reforms have proven to be highly successful. While Singapore has one of the lowest crime rates in the world (overall crime rate in 2018 of 588 per 100,000 population) (Singapore Police Force 2018), over the course of the last two decades, it is r eported that there has been a one-third drop in recidivism, and increased social connections between prisons, prisoners and the rest of society (Helliwell 2011: 255). Since its inception, the Yellow Ribbon Project has garnered significant community support and has inspired community organisations to further leverage public support to assist ex-prisoners to reintegrate into mainstream society. This paper discusses the background, inception, framework, and various activities that the Yellow Ribbon Project undertakes to achieve its goals.
ARTICLE 5 – INNOVATIONS IN A MODEL FOR ENHANCING THE BEHAVIOR CHANGE CONTENT OF SUPERVISION WITH COMMUNITY-BASED OFFENDERS

Mark V.A. Howard, Chee Seng Chong, Ofir Thaler & Nhat Le Tran

Routine supervision in the community represents a substantial opportunity to intervene with offenders and promote behavior change at the population level. In recent years Corrective Services New South Wales (NSW) has made a number of innovations to the community supervision model to enhance the behavior change focus and content of sessions between supervising officers and offenders. This has included introduction of the Practice Guide for Intervention (PGI), a series of structured exercises and activities that can be used in sessions to addr ess offenders’ criminogenic needs.The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the PGI model as implemented by Corrective Services NSW. This paper also reports on the results of a number of studies evaluating components of the PGI, including system-wide uptake and ongoing delivery of the model; officers’ perceptions of supervisory principles in the community; offender engagement in behavior change content; and implications for intervention dosage among the target offender population.
ARTICLE 6 – THE STRENGTH OF OHIO’S COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS: LEADERSHIP IN RESEARCH AND RE-ENTRY

Denise M. Robinson, Randy Shively, & Gloria Iannucci

This article examines and discusses factors that have made the State of Ohio successful in broadening its corrections continuum to include a range of effective community corrections programs based on a research model of Core Correctional Practices. Public-private partnerships, effective prison leadership and other collaborative efforts have helped practitioners and policymakers to overcome counterproductive attitudes and regulations. Research at the University of Cincinnati has led to the creation of the Ohio Risk Assessment System (ORAS) and the Effective Practices in Community Supervision (EPICS) model. These formalize the translation of risk, needs and responsivity principles into systemic practices.
ARTICLE 7 – EMPLOYMENT RE-ENTRY: UNPACKING THE EXPERIENCES AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF FORMER FEDERAL CANADIAN PRISONERS

Rosemary (Rose) Ricciardelli, Amy Sheppard & Taylor Mooney

For prisoners, post-release, barriers exist to securing employment. Correctional Services Canada (CSC) has identified that approximately 60% of prisoners at intake to federal custody have employment histories that compromise their future employability. Employment and educational programming, as well as therapeutic and life skills courses, are offered within many prisons. Yet, the interpretations of available programming by prisoners, represents a lacuna in knowledge. In the current study, we draw from longitudinal interview data collected with 24 individuals released from federal prisons. Our objective is to develop an understanding of programming prisoners experience in the Canadian federal penal system in terms of pre-employment and employment training, educational opportunities, life skills and therapeutic programming. Based on their experiences of programming within prisons, these participants put forward ideas to increase the effectivity of future programming.

Keywords: re-entry; employment, prisoners, releasees, longitudinal study, interviews; desistance; prison programming

ARTICLE 8 – THE CHANGING FEDERAL OFFENDER POPULATION UNDER COMMUNITY SUPERVISION: RECOGNITION AND RESPONSE

Larry Motiuk

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) administers the community supervision of all federal offenders on conditional release. A modernized approach to correctional policy, programming and management practice requires timely, accurate and objective information on the offender population. CSC’s automated capacity to produce profiles of the community supervision population is being used to raise awareness about size and composition. Analytics show that CSC is facing some new challenges in managing the complexities of an increasingly diverse community supervision population.
ARTICLE 9 – WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES FOR EFFECTIVE TRAFFIC OFFENDER EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS?

Ian J. Faulks,Vic Siskind & Mary Sheehan

Remedial programs for traffic offenders, other than specialised programs directed at drink driving offenders, do not evaluate well. This study aimed to identify issues that could impact on the measured outcome effectiveness of such general programs by examining offense variability and licensing differences in a cohort of attendees at the Traffic Offender Intervention Program used in New South Wales, Australia. The program delivers the same “one size fits all” content to all offenders despite their diverse offending histories, a wide spectrum of offenses, and differing driving experience. Research to examine the content of programs, to trial targeted offense interventions, and to develop specialised units using internet delivery is recommended.
PRACTICE INNOVATION IN CORRECTIONS
ARTICLE 10 – CREATING A ONE-STOP CAREER CENTER THAT COLLABORATES WITH COMMUNITY CORRECTION AND WELCOMES JUSTICE-INVOLVED INDIVIDUALS

Cynthia Stadel, Holly Whittleton & Liv Jenssen

In January 2017, the NewStart Reentry Resource Center opened within SE Works, Inc., a community based non profit organization that houses a US Department of Labor One-Stop Career Center in Portland, Oregon. NewStart is funded by Multnomah County Department of Community Justice (DCJ); services are available to any county resident within two years of release from county jail or state prison. NewStart grows out of a collaboration between SE Works and DCJ spanning more than 12 years. Authors discuss the role of grants, partners, staffing, differentiated services, and careful data monitoring as critical in sustaining this innovative program.
ARTICLE 11 – RESPONDING TO THE CRISIS OF AGING PEOPLE IN PRISON: PROMISING CORRECTIONS AND COMMUNITY PRACTICES

Tina Maschi & Adriana Kaye

The purpose of this paper is to educate the international corr ections community about the global innovations on how some correctional systems are collaborating with community stakeholders to provide compassionate community care to older adults released from prison. To this end, this article begins with a brief overview of the international aging in prison crisis from prison to community reintegration. Next, it briefly reviews prison-based programs with transitional services and community reintegration programs for older adults. The article concludes with recommendations at the institutional, local community, and global levels that can help facilitate a more compassionate care approach to addressing the rapidly growing crisis of aging.
ARTICLE 12 – STORYBOOKS, COMIC BOOKS AND GRAPHIC NOVELS: INNOVATIONS IN COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

Adrian Gregorich

In their work with families affected by incarceration, Canadian Families and Corrections Network (CFCN) has developed storybooks and a comic book to help children and youth understand the correctional system and respond resiliently to the stresses of having an incarcerated parent. Native Counselling Services of Alberta (NCSA) has created a graphic novel that tells the gripping story of an Indigenous gang member who moves through the correctional system into NCSA’s “In Search of Your Warrior” intervention program. This paper provides research-based context for incarcerated parents and Indigenous offenders, describes CFCN and NCSA’s innovative books, and relates lessons learned by Correctional Service Canada through partnerships with these community organizations.