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More than 60 per cent of countries are now experiencing prison overcrowding. This term is used to describe a situation whereby the number of inmates exceeds the capacity of correctional facilities. Prison overcrowding gravely affects the living condition of inmates, who are forced to co-exist in closed, confined and congested spaces and share limited resources. This overcrowding leads to inadequate items needed for basic hygiene (such as soap, toothpaste and shampoo), shortage of clean water and medicines as well as conflict and violence inside the facilities. Most inmates hail from demographic groups that have struggled with economic/social constraints. A number of inmates have also had health problems before being imprisoned. Among their problems are drug/alcohol abuse, mental issues, and infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C). When these factors are combined with limited personnel, budget, facilities and access to health services in prison, it is a challenge preventing the spread of communicable diseases in these facilities even in normal times. (COV-085)
The Neuro-Physiology of "Talk": Using Trauma and Resiliency Informed Communication to Increase Safety, Engagement and Reduce Recidivism, Marilyn Van Dieten, Canada; Alyssa Benedict, USA (ICPA2018-PID021)